Paul Skandera. Lieven Vandelanotte. Gustav Muthmann. Amanda Patten. Ute Dons. Daniele M. Ursula Lenker.
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Matti Rissanen. Lauren Squires. Elisabeth Bruckmaier. Markku Filppula. Michael Getty. Verena Haser. Christopher M. A Natural or a Marked Phenomenon? Are reduplicatives natural phenomena, i. Both descriptions are in fact appropriate.
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Let us specify aspects of iconicity that we can identify in the vari- ous types. It is internal, mutual similarity, imagic resemblance, obtaining be- tween the two constituents of the binomial. It is iconicity confined to the signans and it is gradable. A synaesthetic effect, iconizing sensations other than sounds, is obtained through the phonosymbolic force of the vowels employed in this sequence. But the phenomenon was confirmed by many studies investigating diminutive modalities in a large number of languages all over the world. It applies to both lex- emes and suffixes.
The notion was very popular in the first half of the twentieth century, even Sapir , at first rather sceptical, in the end provided experimental support for such an intuition. Researchers, Sapir included, advanced the possibility of a kines- thetic explanation for this type of iconicity, based upon the position of the tongue and the size of the oral cavity during pronunciation. The onomatopoeic modalities are observable in cases like, for ex- ample, ding-dong, tick-tack, click-clock.
And the closer sound is perceived as more acutely me- tallic, while the remoter one as more muffled. The pattern seems to be a very regular pattern all around the world, perhaps a quasi-universal.
The orchestral accompaniment emphasizes the effect. The same vowel pattern, from high to low, has also established it- self, with a phonaesthetic quality, in other categories. It evokes a meaning of proximity vs. In English, the ablaut pattern is so powerful that, it is reported by Anderson , an Algonquian name for a tree, moosemise, has reappeared in English as missey-moosey, re- shaped to conform to the normal English vocalic pattern.
Analo- gously, Middle English tussemose has turned into tussie-mussie. Nowadays, the phonosymbolic conception has lost ground. Bauer denies it and Minkova provides an alternative motiva- tion for the vocalic pattern of ablaut reduplicatives. Minkova also motivates the preference for these two polar vowels as a preference for maximum distinction in terms of vowel quality, and explains their directionality, i.
Extra-grammatical Morphology in English
In the majority of cases, the replicans, i. Similarly, in clickety-clack, clinkety-clank. Conclusion Only partial and provisional conclusions are possible at this phase of the research. My investigation has shown, so far, only some basic properties of reduplicatives: a their motivation for both a morpho- logical and a phonological account, b the extra-grammatical character of their morphology, i.
As anticipated in the introduction, other aspects deserve attention and scrutiny, especially from a pragmatic perspective. It is my hy- pothesis that reduplicatives can cover areas of use that in other lan- guages, especially Italian, but also Spanish and the Slavic languages, are normally covered by evaluative suffixes, namely nursery, family, jargon and slang areas Merlini Barbaresi Reduplicatives are also a promising research area as regards text type, register and me- dium varieties.
The hypothesis is that their use, starting in informal, homiletic, youth language, may, over time, migrate to any other vari- ety. More extensive corpus investigations are needed. On a more theoretical basis and with reference to their lexical value, a study from a cognitive perspective will also be rewarding and illuminating. The data presented are taken from the literature on the subject, especially Thun , who provides the most exhaustive list, and from the large number of data-bases on the Web, which I have mostly checked on the Oxford English Dictionary and Merriam Webster, both on line.
Lloyds on Spanish , but they are much less integrated in the system than English reduplicatives are. The same phenomenon, with similar functions, is spreading in other languages, e. References Anderson, E. Bauer, L. Bloomfield, L. Campbell, M. Chicago Linguistic Society Dienhart, J. Dressler, W. Mayerthaler, O. Doleschal, U. Thornton eds. Hohenhaus, P. Inkelas, S. Jakobson, R. Sebeok ed. This is what has happened to burger , originally a reanalysis from hamburger which shows up in beefburger and cheeseburger. The -scape which emerged from landscape might be a case in point, though the Oxford English Dictionary lists so many instances of its being used independently that there can be little doubt as to its status as a word now.
On the other hand, if we believe the Oxford English Dictionary , -cade from cavalcade into motorcade has become an affix. John Benjamins, Splinters in Blends "[ Blends ] may be composed of two elements called splinters ballute from balloon and parachute , or only one element is a splinter and the other element is a full word escalift from escalator and lift , needcessity from need and necessity. A special punning effect is achieved when one constituent echoes in some way the word or word-fragment it replaces, for example, foolosopher echoing philosopher , or fakesimile , echoing facsimile.
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Related Extra-grammatical Morphology in English
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