The chronicler Yahia noted that "only those things that were too difficult to demolish were spared. The Ottoman traveller, Evliya Celebi — , claimed that a hidden zinc jar of naphtha was dripped down a chain by a hidden monk. Edward Gibbon — , wrote scathingly about the alleged phenomenon in the concluding volume of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire :. This pious fraud, first devised in the ninth century, was devoutly cherished by the Latin crusaders, and is annually repeated by the clergy of the Greek, Armenian, and Coptic sects, who impose on the credulous spectators for their own benefit and that of their tyrants.
Thomas Tegg , a 19th-century Englishman, included a deflationary account of the event in The London Encyclopaedia, published in , speculating that the event is purely natural and motivated by pecuniary interest. Some Greeks have been critical of the Holy Fire, such as Adamantios Korais , who condemned what he considered to be religious fraud in his treatise "On the Holy Light of Jerusalem.
In , in a live demonstration on Greek television,  Michael Kalopoulos, author and historian of religion, dipped three candles in white phosphorus. The candles spontaneously ignited after approximately 20 minutes due to the self-ignition properties of white phosphorus when in contact with air.
According to Kalopoulos' website:. If phosphorus is dissolved in an appropriate organic solvent, self-ignition is delayed until the solvent has almost completely evaporated.
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Repeated experiments showed that the ignition can be delayed for half an hour or more, depending on the density of the solution and the solvent employed. Kalopoulos also points out that chemical reactions of this nature were well known in ancient times, quoting Strabo, who states: "In Babylon there are two kinds of naphtha springs, a white and a black.
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The white naphtha is the one that ignites with fire. Russian skeptic Igor Dobrokhotov  has analysed the evidence for an alleged miracle at length on his website, including the ancient sources  and contemporary photos and videos. Aleksandr Musin of Sorbonne, and some Old Believers quote excerpts from the diaries of Bishop Porphyrius Uspensky — ,  which told that the clergy in Jerusalem knew that the Holy Fire was fraudulent.
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Porphyrius was a Russian Orthodox archimandrite who was sent on the official Church-related research mission to Jerusalem and other places Egypt, Mount Athos. While in Jerusalem, he founded the Russian Mission there. In his book, the journalist Dimitris Alikakos presents an interview with the skeuophylax Archbishop Isidoros of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, in which the former admits that the "Sleepless Candle", which himself puts into the Church of the Holy Sepulchre during the morning of the Holy Saturday , is ignited by him with a lighter  : 75  .
The former skeuophylax Archbishop Nikiforos makes the same acknowledgement, except that he was using matches  : In the same book, Archbishop Gerason Theofanis states that the Holy Fire does not light up in a miraculous, but in a natural way, and it is then blessed by the Patriarch.
He adds: "we deceive the believers letting them believe that it is a miracle. This is unacceptable, and does not reflect well on us"  : According to Theofanis, the fraud of the "miracle" was invented by catholic crusaders a few centuries ago, and unfortunately was later continued by the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate  . In addition, the Metropolitan Bishop Kornilios of Petras, surrogate of the Jerusalem Patriarchate in , confirmed an older interview, saying that he also had ignited the candles of the Holy Fire with a natural candle, and he described in full detail what he saw when he entered the Church of the Holy Sepulchre  : One of the Armenian torchbearers, a task that's usually passed down from father to son or other male member of a torchbearer's family , has admitted that his father revealed to him the truth, that the source of the fire is ancient and symbolic but not a miracle.
He said: "The Greek priests bring in a lamp - one that has been kept burning for 1, years - to produce the Holy Fire. For pilgrims full of faith who come from abroad, it is a fire from Heaven, a true miracle. But not for us! From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Eastern Orthodox symbol of Resurrection. For other uses, see Holy Fire disambiguation. The Paschal Fire in Jerusalem Third ed.
When the Fire Fell
Orthodox Christian Information Center. Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 30 January Greek Reporter. Cosimo, Inc. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Retrieved 11 August — via www. Behold, there came fire down from heaven, and burnt up the two captains of the former fifties with their fifties: therefore let my life now be precious in your sight. And there came down fire from heaven, and consumed him and his fifty…. Psalm For the redemption of their soul is precious, and it ceaseth for ever:.
Psalm He shall redeem their soul from deceit and violence: and precious shall their blood be in his sight. New International Version See, fire has fallen from heaven and consumed the first two captains and all their men.
Timely and Inspiring Prophetic Analysis so you can Prepare.
But now have respect for my life! But now please spare my life! But now may my life be precious in your sight. But let my life now be precious in your sight. Christian Standard Bible Already fire has come down from heaven and consumed the first two captains with their companies, but this time let my life be precious to you. Please don't let it happen to me.
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So now, please have respect for my life. But now let my life be precious in your sight. But treat my life as something precious.
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